These curricular values shape each course Western offers:
Reformed – We are committed to a generously Reformed theological identity and seek to shape our students in this tradition.
Biblical – We are committed to a curriculum that is soaked in Scripture. We believe that Scripture is not an “object” to be analyzed, but a living document that transforms us.
Theological – Connected with the two values above, we believe that our curriculum is thoroughly theological. We do not perpetuate the division and silos of traditional fields. Rather, we seek deep integration of biblical courses, ministry courses, and theology courses.
Sacramental – We celebrate the Lord’s Supper each Friday and remember our baptisms each day in the worship life of our school, which fundamentally shapes our identity and ethos.
Missional – The church is called to participate in God’s mission in the world. We are committed to building a curriculum that explores that central theme of the Christian faith.
Formational – We do not simply “deliver” a degree program. We are called to form students into deeper, wiser, more pastorally aware, more skilled practitioners of ministry practices, and more committed disciples of Jesus.
Contextual – Theology and ministry always happens in a particular time and a particular place with a particular people. We help our students see the thoroughly contextual nature of theology, Scripture, church, and their own selves.
By God’s grace, Western Theological Seminary forms women and men for faithful Christian ministry and participation in the Triune God’s ongoing redemptive work in the world.
IDENTITY: Western Theological Seminary is an evangelical and ecumenical community of faith and learning in the Reformed tradition that serves the church of Jesus Christ. In covenant with the Reformed Church in America, Western equips men and women for Christ-centered, biblically-based, theologically integrated, culturally competent, and mission-oriented Christian leadership.
Mission Statement Emphases
Our mission statement informs our way of being in community, the goals of our curriculum, our relationship with students and colleagues, and our commitment to church and society in the name of the gospel. From this mission statement comes several particular emphases:
We are a community of formation for ministry.
We are Reformed in theological identity. Our teaching is shaped by the confessional standards of the Reformed Church in America, The Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, Canons of Dort, and the Belhar Confession.
As an implication of our Reformed identity, we are particularly eager to affirm the sacramental character of Reformed theology and worship. We wholeheartedly affirm baptismal identity in a covenant framework, which leads to the further affirmation of infant baptism. We also affirm Eucharistic identity in Jesus Christ that nourishes our faith and service. We joyfully receive the Lord’s Supper each Friday in community and worship. These theological affirmations of our seminary mean that all faculty are expected to uphold a Reformed baptismal and Eucharistic perspective in their teaching.
We are committed to Scripture as the living word of God. We are eager to form our students in a deep hunger and thirst for Scripture.
We are committed to affirming the gifts and the calls to ministry of women and men.
We support the inclusive language policy of Western Theological Seminary as a form of hospitality. This means that faculty will expect students to demonstrate inclusive language in written papers, spoken presentations and sermons. In brief, we expect language with respect to human beings to be gender neutral and/or inclusive and language with respect to God to exhibit the wide variety of biblical names and images of God.
We are committed to racial reconciliation. Western Theological Seminary imagines and encourages ways in which our life together should embrace the racial-ethnic diversity of God’s family. WTS seeks in every way to attract and integrate others from our multi-cultural context to share in the broad Reformed tradition. We will pursue practices and policies of hospitality and justice reflecting the character of God for all the members of the seminary community.
We are committed to recognizing our students as adult learners. This means that we will relate to our students with gracious respect. It also means that we can expect from our students their respect toward professor and peers in the classroom and their responsibility for course assignments/readings.
We are committed to the formation of our students in their theological and pastoral identity. We believe that this commitment holds us to a high standard of community involvement. It also holds us to the standards of behavior as identified in the Vision of Our Life Together and Code of Conduct.
Vision of Our Life Together
Western Theological Seminary is committed to providing a learning environment that maintains a healthy climate for the development of relationships among its students, staff and faculty. All our relationships in our Christian community must reflect the value of each person, for each person is an image-bearer of God and ought both to give and receive respect. Our vision of what a healthy Christian community should be includes the following characteristics:
1. We seek to be collegial rather than competitive.
A basic understanding of the nature of a Christian community recognizes the value and worth of all persons and their contribution to theological education. Modeling a spirit of collegiality rather than competition in communal life is imperative in educating people to become leaders of communities. Collegiality creates an atmosphere of openness to all people. When, for example, differences in theological positions, denominational affiliations, or understandings of ministry occur, those differences should be expressed and addressed in a manner that respects each person’s growth in wholeness and each person’s gifts to the larger body.
2. We seek to foster a spirit of freedom rather than fear.
The seminary community seeks to be free from intimidation, threat, coercion, or the abusive use of power in carrying on its discourse in the classroom as well as in the ethos of its life together. Freedom of expression in spoken and written work is not only an American constitutional right but, more fundamentally, it is an issue of Christian hospitality and humility and as such is the expected courtesy accorded to every member of the community. To the extent that the community is reflective of this freedom of expression without recrimination, so it will exhibit an atmosphere of trust and safety rather than fear.
3. We seek to promote a spirit of excellence and inquiry.
Excellence and inquiry are essential to the work of the seminary and to the practice of ministry. Excellence involves the necessity of asking the difficult questions, wrestling with controversial issues, and dedicating oneself to the disciplines of prayer, study, worship, research, dialogue and continuing growth. In the spirit of freedom and in dedication to the truth, some issues will be challenging for students, staff and faculty alike. The community values the opportunity to engage in dialogue, debate, and inquiry at its very best without demeaning or devaluing another person in the process. Our pursuit of excellence should not be confused with perfectionism, which inevitably leads to loss of community with self and others. Instead, it should be understood as the worship of God with our minds and the proper stewardship of our intellectual gifts.
4.We seek to promote and encourage equality and access.
The Christian community is reminded that in Christ, divisions predicated on gender, race, or social status are put aside (Galatians 3:28). The community is to reflect the reality that the dividing walls of hostility between people have been broken down by their being united in the body of Christ (Ephesians 2:13-16). Every effort will be made by the members of the community to encourage and ensure that the spirit of equality results in the practice of access for every member of the community, thus living in the truth and promise of these affirmations.
5. We seek to engender a spirit of forgiveness and love.
As a community, we are aware of the reality of sin as alienation, brokenness and estrangement in our relationships to God, others, nature and ourselves. We recognize in particular that the misuse and abuse of power and specific actions of harassment or discrimination have marred even the community of the Church. (See Policy on Non-Harassment and Non-Discrimination) The reality of sin requires of a community repentance, reconciliation and restitution in order that restoration may occur. The Western Theological Seminary community will attempt to distinguish itself as one that is ready to forgive, welcomes the restoration of the penitent and works for the justice of the victim.
Theological Identity Statement
In light of Western Theological Seminary’s mission and identity, we present this as a statement of our faculty commitments as we teach, write, and serve Christ’s church.
Western Theological Seminary is committed to the admission and education of students without discrimination on the basis of sex. Throughout Scripture, we see God calling and appointing women to teach, preach, and lead God’s people. We uphold the biblical witness as we prepare women and men to lead the church in mission. This is also expressed in our covenant with the Reformed Church in America, a denomination that upholds the full participation of women in the life and ministry of the church. As a faculty, we also want to declare clearly our unwavering and unanimous commitment to the education and ordination of women for all forms of ministry to which they have been called by God—whether inside or outside the church—including the Ministry of Word and Sacrament. In welcoming women students to all of its programs and encouraging women in their vocations, we as an institution have a steadfast commitment to the women we welcome, which includes our commitment to establish an environment in which their education and calling will be properly nurtured and affirmed. We expect all who join our faculty to abide by this commitment.
At the same time, we recognize that the role of women and the status of the leadership and ordination of women is a point of disagreement in many denominations, churches, Christian organizations, and among some of our students. We are dedicated to being a community that upholds academic freedom and the free discussion of ideas inside and outside the classroom when done in the spirit of faith seeking understanding. We do not believe that differences of opinion on this matter should keep Christians from maintaining fellowship with one another or celebrating the Lord’s Supper together. Therefore, we welcome men and women students who hold different views on the matter of the role and ministries of women and seek to support all of our students in their God-given callings. We also want to nurture ties with churches and institutions that hold different views. We do expect, however, that all students, regardless of their personal convictions, will acknowledge the full rights and status of all their fellow students in their degree program, regardless of sex.
Maintaining these commitments well requires practical wisdom. May the triune God pour bountiful wisdom and grace on our entire community as we all—students, staff, board of trustees, and faculty—seek to follow the one who prayed “that they be completely one, so that the world may know that you have sent me and have loved them even as you have loved me” (John 17:23).
Statement on Racial and Ethnic Diversity
From the very beginning, scripture is clear that all people are created in the image of God without distinction of race or ethnicity (e.g. Gen 1:26-28; Gen 9:6) and that the blessings of God are for all peoples and nations (e.g. Gen 12:1-3, Isa 2:1-4). Above all, we see that for all who are in Christ, there are no grounds for division based on ethnicity or race. Race is a purely cultural construct, although it exerts tremendous power in the world. Our identity in Christ incorporates and celebrates our social identities such as race and ethnicity. We are united to Christ by the Spirit through faith, such that none may boast over another (Gal 3:26-29; Eph 2:11-22; Col 3: 11); and yet our one-ness in Christ also includes our distinct racial and ethnic identities, which was God’s intentional design and will continue to be affirmed and celebrated into the eschaton (e.g. Rev 7: 9-10).
At Western Theological Seminary we long to embody more fully that to which the gospel calls us, and of which our standards remind us, with regard to racial and ethnic diversity. We affirm the biblical practices of peacemaking and racial reconciliation. God calls us to love our neighbors and to be agents of reconciliation in the world.
We are also committed to the biblical practices of justice. We strive to grow in in racial
reconciliation and justice by embodying the biblical value of mutuality. We desire to facilitate true equality among all our members of various ethnic, gender, and racial backgrounds. We commit to relating to one another with honor, fairness, and respect.
Finally, we affirm in Christ-centered unity-in-diversity. We seek to provide an educational context through which our students will learn to lead and serve in diverse intercultural and international contexts. We strive to become a Christ-centered learning community that is racially and ethnically diverse. We also commit to be a hospitable learning community that provide opportunities for students to learn from and with those who come from different backgrounds.
It is our hope that through these commitments, students will experience formative and
transformative experiences that equip them to become more faithful Christians and leaders in this world.
In 1866, seven of the eight members of Hope College’s inaugural graduating class wished to become ministers and petitioned the General Synod of the Reformed Church in America, asking that “arrangements be made for them to prosecute their theological studies at that college.” The RCA operated New Brunswick Theological Seminary in New Jersey, but these students did not want to relocate. Synod responded favorably, noting that the first request to establish a theological center in the West had come in 1848. Dr. Cornelius Crispell was appointed professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology of Hope College’s new theology department, and was soon joined on the theological faculty by Dr. Philip Phelps, president of the college, and Dr. Albertus C. Van Raalte, founder of the Holland colony.
A number of challenges confronted the college including a devastating fire that destroyed most of the city of Holland in 1871, a nationwide financial crisis in 1873, lower than expected enrollments, and inadequate financial support from the western churches. The situation became so critical that the General Synod directed the college to suspend the activities of the theological department in 1877. To that date, 29 students had graduated with advanced degrees.
Theological education was resumed in 1884 with Dr. Nicholas Steffens installed in the freshly endowed ($30,000) chair of Didactic and Polemic Theology. Five students enrolled. A year later, in 1885, the seminary formally separated from the college, establishing its own governing board, faculty, and curriculum. The name of the new school was the “Western Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church in America.”
The new school had very little, and instruction continued on the Hope College campus. Years later, Dr. Albertus Pieters reflected, “What there was in my student days is easily described: grounds, none; recitation hall, none; maps, none; library, none; periodicals, none. This is a complete and accurate inventory of the Western Theological Seminary at that time.”
The first building, Semelink Family Hall, housing five classrooms and a chapel, was constructed in 1895. Zwemer Hall, a student dormitory, was built in 1914 at a cost of $27,216. Dr. James Zwemer was an indefatigable fund raiser for the seminary, as well as professor of practical theology and president of the faculty. About the same time a library was added, built by Dr. John W. Beardslee, Sr., professor of Biblical Languages and Literature, at his own expense. The enrollment grew steadily (there were 94 graduates in the 1910s and 131 by the 1930s) and eventually Western became the largest supplier of ministers, missionaries, and theological professors to the RCA.
In 1955, under the leadership of President John R. Mulder, the familiar Georgian colonial seminary building was constructed during a time of sharp enrollment increases following the Second World War. 282 students graduated in the decade of the 1950s. A Master of Christian Education degree was developed in the 1960s and women faculty and students joined the Western community.
The late 1960s and 1970s saw much change, including a creative experiment called the “Bi-level Multi Site” with New Brunswick Theological Seminary in New Jersey. For a short time, Western’s President Herman “Bud” Ridder became president of both schools, and students also moved between both institutions. The school also was becoming, albeit slowly, more multi-cultural.
The six-story Cook Center for Theological Research was opened in 1981 during the presidency of I. John Hesselink. The city of Holland closed 12th Street about the same time between Columbia and College Avenues, causing Western to relocate its main entrance onto 13th Street. The school expanded its educational offerings significantly during Hesselink’s presidency by establishing a Doctor of Ministry degree.
During the presidency of Marvin D. Hoff in the 1980s and early 1990s, a growing need for better student housing resulted in townhouses being built across 13th Street. During those years the Bast Preaching Initiatives were endowed, and a professional development staff was added.
Over the years, the seminary has been blessed with strong, visionary leaders who led Western through program, building, finance and faculty expansions all in the name of preparing leaders for the church of Jesus Christ.
During the presidency of Dennis Voskuil (1994-2008), Western successfully completed two capital campaigns and built the DeWitt Center for Theological Education, housing the Burggraaff Atrium, classrooms, and administrative and faculty offices. A new Distance Learning Master of Divinity degree was launched, and in 2007 the Ralph and Cheryl Schregardus Friendship House was built, the first student housing of its kind in the country, where seminarians live alongside adults with cognitive disabilities.
During the presidency of Timothy Brown (2008-2019), seminary enrollment reached record heights. Innovations took place, like the partnership with the Newbigin House of Studies of City Church San Francisco, the Ridder Church Renewal process, a new focus on disability and ministry, and the launching of the Hispanic Ministries program. A major renovation of the Mulder Chapel was completed in 2012, and a Master of Arts degree was added in 2013. The seminary leadership adopted a comprehensive strategic plan in 2014, with ambitious initiatives in diversity, curriculum, and facility renovation. As a result, the physical campus underwent transformation as the 1950s building was renovated, and the 6-story library made way for the 21st Century Jack and Mary DeWitt Learning Center.
Dr. Felix Theonugraha became the twelfth president of Western on July 1, 2019. Dr. Theonugraha’s personal experience, as well as his professional role as a talented administrator, make him uniquely qualified to lead WTS into the rapidly changing and diversifying world of theological education.
The history of Western Theological Seminary is strong. It is a history of preparing leaders for the church of Jesus Christ through times of challenge and change. The future is bright, and Western will continue to prepare relevant, engaged leaders for the enduring work of the Gospel in all times and places.
The Spirit of Western
In the summer of 2015, Dr. Thomas Boogaart, the Dennis and Betty Voskuil Professor of Old Testament, wrote “The Spirit of WTS” in an attempt to capture what historically has animated Western for the past 150 years. His short essay is below.
The Spirit of Western Theological Seminary
Scripture tells the story of how God loves his people and draws them into his presence. God is sovereign over all creation, but God does not rule from some distant heavenly palace. Again and again Scripture tells us that the Sovereign One sets his tabernacle in the midst of his people, lowers the scepter, and draws them into his presence. As John puts it so memorably in his Gospel, the Word-made-flesh “tabernacles” among his people who behold his glory and receive from him grace upon grace.
In his parable of the prodigal son, Jesus summarizes this scriptural witness of the embrace of God. He portrays the sovereign God as a Father who longs for his wayward child to come home. God’s eyes scan the road; God’s feet are ready to run to him; God’s arms are poised to embrace him; and God’s heart desires nothing more than to sit at table with all his children and share in the feast he has prepared for them. In speaking of God’s provision, the Heidelberg Catechism memorably says, “God is able to do this because he is almighty God, and desires to do this because he is a faithful father.” Rembrandt captures all this in his unforgettable etching of the return of the prodigal son.
It is this profound sense of being drawn into the presence of God that inspires our life together at Western Theological Seminary. Being held in the arms of God, we learn to know God and to know in turn ourselves and what God desires of us in the world.
We experience the presence of God particularly in daily corporate worship. Gathered around the table and font, we celebrate the real presence of the triune God in the breaking of the bread, the pouring of wine, and the cleansing waters of baptism. This experience of God’s presence in bread, wine, and water begins to shape our view of God’s presence in the larger world. Seeing God’s glory at the table and font helps us to see God’s glory in the world. A sacramental world view carries over from the chapel into the classroom where it creates a foundation for understanding more deeply God’s mission in the world.
God is present to us in his word. We are a community that emphasizes learning the original languages of scripture and encourages thoughtful, contextual theological reflection. Across the curriculum we practice ancient and neglected discipline of memorization. We learn the word of God by heart so that it is woven into the very fabric of our being and available to the Holy Spirit who, as Calvin taught us, resides in our hearts as the word’s true witness.
God is present through this gift of the Spirit, and Western is committed to creating an environment in which the Spirit can work in the hearts of students and manifest its fruits of love, joy, peace, etc. in their lives. We have trained faculty and staff, and we have designed our curriculum, to foster the emotional and spiritual growth of students alongside of their intellectual growth. While academic rigor is a high value, it is not the only pastoral quality we seek to instill in our students.
The community formed by Western’s students, faculty, and staff does not exist for its own sake but lives as a sign and foretaste of the reign of God. Because scripture teaches us that our God tabernacles among us and longs to embrace all of his children, we strive to eliminate the barriers that separate people so that we can all stand together in the presence of God. We live by the words of Paul: “For all of you are one in Christ: there is no longer Jew or Greek, slave or free, male or female” (Galatians 3: 28). We stand together in all our diversity, and we stand together with people with cognitive disabilities who live in our Friendship House, the poor and disenfranchised in Holland who eat at our Community Kitchen, and the poor and disenfranchised of the world who sell their crafts through our gift shop, the Bridge.
The spirit of Western Theological Seminary is seen in today’s faculty and staff, who join a long tradition of pastor/scholars whose arms were open – to students, to the church, to the wider world – with a consciousness of being embraced in the arms of God and a call to be a sign of God’s presence in the world.
The seminary is committed to working toward racial-ethnic diversity in our community.
Faculty Fellow Program – Racial-ethnic scholars are invited to teach at the seminary part time while they finish their doctoral studies in a seminary-related field. Western created this program to help prepare leaders for diverse congregations. Since 2010, six scholars have been fellows at the seminary (Eric Williams, Rev. Chris Dorsey, Dr. Han-Luen Kantzer Komline, Dr. Dynna Castillo Portugal, Rev. Duane Loynes, Sr., and Dr. Gordon Govens). They taught classes in topics such as modern black theology, multi-cultural ministry, theology and social movements, pastoral care and counseling, and justice/liberation.
Leonard F. Stoutemire Lecture in Multicultural Ministry – Begun by Faculty Fellow Eric Williams in 2011, this annual lecture series brings in experts from a wide range of disciplines to increase cultural competency in our seminarians, faculty, staff, alumni/ae, and local congregations. The 9th Stoutemire lecturer was Dr. Leah Gunning Francis, speaking about “Faith Following Ferguson: Five Years Later”. Watch lecture.
Graduate Certificate in Pastoral Ministry– This program meets the educational needs of those interested in church-planting and leadership. An ethnically diverse group of professors balance theory with practical learning as they teach the courses.
Partnership with Instituto Biblico Ebenezer (IBE) – In 2014 the seminary entered into a strategic partnership with IBE of Holland, MI. IBE is a biblical training school for Latino/a church leaders. We provide space in our building for their classes, and both communities (WTS and IBE) gather for fellowship and conversation about the joys and challenges of ministry in a multicultural world.
Disability Advocacy and Ministry
In 2007, WTS made an enormous stride in the area of disability awareness. By building The Ralph & Cheryl Schregardus Friendship House, WTS ensured the presence of people with disabilities on campus and offered WTS students an experience of shared housing with young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
Including these new friends into the WTS community has impacted everyone in the seminary. Each student, staff member, faculty, and future ministry leader at WTS carries in his or her heart a heightened awareness, a sense of compassion for all persons with disabilities, and a basic ability to minister to and with them and their families. That is good news for the Church!
The spirit of Friendship House has also found a home in the academic curriculum.
In the Fall of 2016, Western Theological Seminary created a 24 credit program that gives men and women the knowledge and skills to lead congregations, ministries, schools, colleges, medical practices and businesses to be inclusive of people with disabilities. Read more about the Graduate Certificate in Disability and Ministry.
In 2018, the seminary hired Sarah Barton and Carlos Thompson to be Nouwen Fellows, members of the faculty whose research specializes in some aspect of disability studies. Carlos has also taken on the role of Friendship House Director.
“Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: Love your neighbor as yourself.” Matthew 22:37-39
At Western we believe actions speak louder than words, and so we strive to live out our core values in tangible ways:
Community Kitchen –In a partnership with Holland’s Community Action House, each weekday at lunchtime, the Commons is open to anyone in need of a meal. Volunteers from local churches feed 75-200 people a day, year-round.
The Bridge – the seminary operates a store in downtown Holland selling goods from artisans around the world who depend upon their work for economic survival, ensuring a fair return to the artists for their work.
Code of Conduct for Faculty, Staff and Teaching Church Mentors
It is the purpose of this Code to call forth our best practices and to assure that our community of faith reflects the Spirit of Christ. Western Theological Seminary’s Code of Conduct offers specific guidelines for professional relationships and is not intended to determine whether a person is legally liable in a court action or whether other legal consequences may occur.
As faculty, staff, and teaching church mentors:
We will not exploit the trust and vulnerability of students. We will refrain from exploiting a teaching or mentoring relationship for our own personal or professional gain.
We will refrain from behavior that discriminates against a member of Western’s community based on factors such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status. The seminary faculty affirm the principles of academic freedom and academic standards as expressed in the ATS document on “Academic Freedom and Tenure” and “Professional Ethics for Teachers” referenced in Appendix B of the handbook.
We will refrain from all forms of abusive words or actions, including sexual misconduct or harassment. Such behavior is offensive and violates the relationship of professor to student, mentor to student, or staff to student. What constitutes sexual harassment is identified in the seminary’s Handbook (Appendix C).
We will not engage in sexual intimacy or romantic involvement with students while they are enrolled at Western Theological Seminary. Due to the power differential in the relationship, a student can never consent as an equal to intimate or sexual behavior or involvement.
We will maintain the boundaries set by professional roles and functions. We are mindful that dual (or multiple) relationships with students are at times unavoidable but could impair our teaching or mentoring or our judgment about the nature of the relationship and the role and function we play in the relationship. Dual roles include, but are not limited to: being a teacher and counselor; professor and friend; faculty member and business partner; supervisor and spouse.
We will not coerce, harass, criticize, nor end the mentoring relationship with a student who has acted in a reasonable, responsible and ethical manner to protect his or her integrity when the student feels a boundary has been transgressed. We will build and provide structures that ensure safety and confidentiality for students when they do speak out.
We will not use our professional relationship with graduates for personal gain. We recognize that teacher-student and mentor-mentee relationships involve a power imbalance which often does not end when a student graduates.
We will protect confidentiality. As faculty, staff and teaching church mentors we will obtain informed consent when we refer to a student in any presentation or in publications.
We will seek informal paths that can lead to understanding, healing, reconciliation, and restoration in the spirit of Matthew 18:15-20 when relationships are broken or damaged in the community. However, when a formal complaint of sexual misconduct or harassment has been filed, we will follow the seminary’s policy as described in the Seminary’s Handbook, Appendix C.
We will remain mindful of the possible effect of our own physical and mental health on our ability to teach and supervise students. We will not initiate a teaching or mentoring relationship when we know that personal problems or lack of training will prevent us from being an effective teacher or mentor.
We acknowledge that Western Theological Seminary can end a mentoring relationship with an individual or a specific congregation at any time without providing detailed reason for doing so if the wellbeing of a student is at risk.
We acknowledge that Western Theological Seminary, a student, a mentor, or a congregation can pursue legal advice when it is determined that unethical behavior occurred.
We recognize that students have received a copy of this Code of Conduct and have been empowered to speak out against any and all abusive behavior. We acknowledge that students are encouraged to report any and all abusive behavior to the Academic Dean, the Dean of Students, or an appropriate Seminary representative.